Central Moneymarkets Unit
The HKMA established the Central Moneymarkets Unit (CMU) in 1990 to provide computerised clearing and settlement facilities for Exchange Fund Bills and Notes. In December 1993, the HKMA extended the service to other Hong Kong dollar debt securities. The CMU offers an efficient, safe and convenient clearing and custodian system for Hong Kong dollar debt instruments. Since December 1994, the CMU has been linked with other regional and international systems. This helps promote Hong Kong dollar debt securities to overseas investors who can use the links to participate in the Hong Kong dollar debt market.
The CMU service was further extended to non-Hong Kong dollar debt securities in January 1996. In December 1996, a seamless interface between the CMU and the Hong Kong dollar RTGS interbank payment system was established. This enables the CMU system to provide real-time and end-of-day Delivery versus Payment (DvP) services to its members. The CMU was further linked to the US dollar, euro and Renminbi RTGS systems in December 2000, April 2003 and March 2006 respectively to provide real time DvP capability for debt securities and also intraday and overnight repo facilities for the US dollar and euro payment systems in Hong Kong.
Main Scope of Services
In addition to providing CMU members with securities transfer services, the CMU also offers the following services:
- Collateral Management System
- Automatic Repo Facility (both intraday and overnight) in Hong Kong dollars, US dollars and euros
- Securities Lending Service
- Securities Lending Programme for debt securities issued by the private sector
- Market Making Arrangement for Exchange Fund Bills and Notes
- Issuance Programme for Exchange Fund Bills and Notes
- Arranger, custodian, agent and operator of notes issued by public corporations
- Real time and End-of-Day DvP for all CMU securities denominated in Hong Kong dollars, US dollars, euros and renminbi
- Cross-border DvP Settlement via regional central securities depositories (CSDs) and international central securities depositories (ICSDs)
- Other custodial services
- Paying Agent
- Securities Lodgement
- Allotment by tendering
- Income distribution service
- Bank-to-bank repo service.
The settlement of transactions made through the CMU system is final and irrevocable. This finality is protected from insolvency laws and other laws by the Clearing and Settlement Systems Ordinance.
The CMU has developed a number of external links with regional CSDs and ICSDs. One-way inbound links from Euroclear and Clearstream, the two largest ICSDs in the world, to the CMU were set up in 1994 to allow international investors to hold and settle Hong Kong dollar debt securities through these international networks. The links became two-way in November 2002 (Euroclear) and January 2003 (Clearstream) to enable investors in Hong Kong and other parts of Asia to hold and settle Euroclear and Clearstream debt securities directly in a secure DvP environment.
The CMU also established links with CDSs in Australia in December 1997, New Zealand in April 1998, and South Korea in September 1999. These links, in addition to facilitating cross-border holding and settlement of debt securities in Hong Kong and overseas, also enlarged the investor base, broadened the domestic debt markets, and reduced settlement risk by facilitating DvP settlement for cross-border securities transactions. The HKMA and the China Government Securities Depository Trust and Clearing Company Limited (CDC) signed an agreement in April 2004 to establish a link between the CMU and the Government Securities Book-entry System (GSBS) operated by the CDC. This link enables authorised investors in Mainland China to hold and settle Hong Kong and foreign debt securities lodged in the CMU.
Listing of Exchange Fund Notes on the Stock Exchange
In August 1999, the HKMA listed all outstanding issues of Exchange Fund Notes (EFNs) on the Stock Exchange of Hong Kong (SEHK). The listing helps improve the secondary market liquidity of EFNs and broaden the investor base to the retail level. The mechanism developed for the EFNs has paved the way for the listing of other public sector issuers and private corporate issuers. For example, the Hong Kong Mortgage Corporation followed suit with the listing of securities issued under its Note Issuance Programme in October 1999.
Using Exchange Fund Bills/Notes as Margin Collateral for Trading of Stock Options and Futures
In order to assist liquidity management by market participants in the stock options and futures exchange, the CMU has developed infrastructure to enable the SEHK Options Clearing House Limited and the Hong Kong Futures Exchange Clearing Corporation Limited to use Exchange Fund paper as common margin collateral for the trading of stock options and futures. With the approval of the HKMA, the SEHK Options Clearing House Limited and the Hong Kong Futures Exchange Clearing Corporation Limited became Recognised Dealers of Exchange Fund paper in March 1999.
CMU Bond Price Bulletin
Pursuant to the recommendations of the Review on Financial Infrastructure Development conducted by the HKMA in 2005 under the guidance of the Financial Infrastructure Sub-Committee of the Exchange Fund Advisory Committee, the CMU has developed a CMU Bond Price Bulletin to provide retail investors with convenient on-line access to indicative bond prices quoted by individual financial institutions in Hong Kong. Launched in January 2006, the Bulletin helps promote the retail bond market in Hong Kong. It improve retail investors' access to the secondary bond market, by providing price and other information on bond products available in the market, raise product awareness and improve price transparency.
Electronic Trading Platform
Launched in December 2007, the Electronic Trading Platform is one of the recommendations arising from the Review of Debt Market Development completed by the HKMA in 2006. The Platform provides the necessary infrastructure to support electronic trading of the Exchange Fund Bonds and Notes and can be extended to cover other bonds and financial instruments available in the market. The Platform increases the price transparency among the market players and streamlines the trading process. Market players can identify their trade counterparties and conclude deals more efficiently. Overseas as well as local market players are encouraged to use this platform to trade bonds and other financial instruments issued in Hong Kong.
CMU Fund Order Routing and Settlement Service
Launched in August 2009, the CMU Fund Order Routing and Settlement Service provides CMU Members, who may also be investment fund distributors, custodians, managers and institutional investors in Hong Kong and the region, with a standardised platform for processing investment fund transactions. The scope of operation of the service includes:
- handling of investment funds subscription, redemption and switching orders
- generation of corresponding confirmation and payment instructions
- provision of regular reports
- provision of investment funds custodian service.
Disclosure Framework for Securities Settlement Systems
The Committee on Payment and Settlement System (CPSS) of the central banks of the G-10 countries and the International Organization of Securities Commissions have jointly developed a disclosure framework for securities settlement systems. The disclosure framework assists market participants in obtaining information for assessments of the risks associated with their participation in securities settlement systems.
The disclosure framework is in the form of a questionnaire to be completed by organisations that operate securities settlement systems.
Asia-Pacific Central Securities Depository Group
In March 2001, the HKMA became a member of the Group, an informal international organisation to facilitate the sharing of experience among central securities depositories and clearing organisations in the Asia Pacific region.
- CMU issues turnover statistics (Excel File, 74KB)
- Exchange Fund paper turnover statistics (Excel File, 62KB)
- List of Exchange Fund Bills and Notes (Excel File, 68KB) (PDF File, 65KB)
- List of CMU Instruments (Excel File, 627KB) (PDF File, 238KB)
- List of Market Makers and Recognized Dealers (Excel File, 39KB) (PDF File, 55KB)
- List of CMU Members (Excel File, 37KB) (PDF File, 48KB)
- Exchange Fund Bills and Notes Clearing and Settlement System Reference Manual (CMU members only)
- CMU Service Reference Manual (CMU members only)
- CMT User Manual (CMU members only)
- SWIFT Format Specification for CMU Transactions and CMU Linkage Transactions (CMU members only)